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Social Stratification in America

Social stratification in American Society is not clearly defined or determined; nevertheless social scientist has developed a socio -economic stratification of the American society. Americans believe in a three class society: rich, poor and middle class and most Americans consider themselves as middle class. In reality the American society is more diverse and incongruent and there is an extensive difference among people. The basic determinants that make social class are wealth, education, income and occupation. Some sociologists have divided the American society in six distinct categories including: rich or the upper class, upper middle class, lower middle class, lower class and poor and under class.

It is believed that the people who belong to the same social class share the similar social positions, similar ways of thinking and life styles; others oppose this idea and believe that we cannot generalize characteristic of the people to one another. Social class creates a hierarchy and identity for the people of each class.

One of the indications of the social class in America is income in terms of either individual or household and is one of the most important indicators of social class. Those families who have two income earners are in a better position. Per capita income which means the amount of money allocated to each individual member is also anther important determinant in social stratification. It can be said the families who have fewer members are in a better position.

Another indication in social stratification is education which has a relation with the occupation and income. Higher education itself needs money and paying tuition, so it is clear that most of the time the families who are better off can afford a better education for their children: they can pay for better schools and private schools, colleges and universities. As the result there is an interrelation between money and education.

One of the most prominent features of social class is culture: people of the same social class tend to have similar ways of behavior; though this behavior and culture is not some thing fix and changes with social mobility: people who move upward or downward in their social stratification will acquire the behavior of that social group. But there is diversity inside the same social group as well. One of the important terms in American culture and literature is the concept of "Class Ascendancy": based on this concept each successive generation will have a higher standard of living than its predecessors. Another important characteristic of American social class is achieved status rather than described statues; it means that regardless of his or her original statues, one can become rich and successful and climb the social ladder. But in reality this idealistic view can not be completely true: many people of color are still suffering the racial prejudices and as a result they can not have the proper education and a good occupation which is perhaps the most important class component. These people have lower income and the cycle will continue to the later generations. Despite the existing injustice and inequalities, America is considered land of opportunity, the land which its streets are paved with gold. Thought this belief is exaggerated, Americans have improved their economic situation with their hard working and persistence.


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Anti-Globalists and Anti-American Bloggers Use US News to Help Their Arguments

So often in the US we see foreign comments about us which are clearly so jaded they do not warrant any sort of response. Often these comments come from anti-Globalists or Anti-American groups and they use our negative news against us. In fact they recite the worst of it and embellish it and then trash the USA in online Blogs. Well here is one right back at them;

President Bush and his administration along with the US Military has prevented WW III by going into Iraq. Now unfortunately we see we have another issue in Iran, which must be dealt with for the future of mankind. So we must rise to that occasion.

You anti-everything bloggers are stating poll numbers which sway like the wind based on mass media content information overload of the human mind in the living rooms of America. TV is not reality, well I know that is an obvious statement, but really in the over all scheme of things, it is not even close.

You bloggers are so anti-American, anti-globilist, anti-World Bank, Anti-Western World. You are pro-Terrorist nation state sponsor, pro-nuclear detonation in Israel, pro-insurgency in Iraq killing US Troops, pro-Iranian fanatic fundamentalism. And you are trying to convince a "Blue Blood American" that the United States of America is to blame for the World's ills?

Give me a break, have you taken a look lately at the corruption of the vocal political opponents of the United States, Western Democracy and liberty and freedom for all peoples? Bringing the World together in a common cause, why are you supporting those who oppose this and continue to carrying on in their acts of terror and violence? Take that you anti-USA blogging scoundrels from hell!

"Lance Winslow" - Online Think Tank forum board. If you have innovative thoughts and unique perspectives, come think with Lance; www.WorldThinkTank.net/. Lance is an online writer in retirement.

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Constructive Elements Of American Culture

Constructive elements of the US culture and American characteristics separate American society from Europe and other world countries, even American neighbors. This distinction becomes clearer with comparison of America and Canada. Both countries were established by European migrants, but Canadian culture has more similarity with European culture. In one hand, American culture is consequence of reaction and interaction between European cultural elements and American geography. On other hand, contact between different cultures of European and non- European culture, particularly African culture. America ethnicity is collection of many migrants ethnic. It is mix of diversity race and ethnic. Plurality and unity is one of important element of American culture.

Emerging of national identity and culture shaped before people conscious. Collection of values system, norms, history, geography, and immigration created a new way of life that I called American culture. American society is like a pot that various things were added and out put of this pot has principle difference with primary things. As a result, understanding American culture and society needs to studding of human process and geography parallel European culture.

When we talk about American culture, values, or specific manners, we mean values, manners, and characters of white mid-class. However, we should emphasis to mid-class in American cultural studies. American culture has constructed of five main elements; 1- individualism and equality 2- immigration and cultural disturbance 3- American-African race and American culture 4- Puritanism 5- expansionism.

Individualism and equality are to element that sometimes seem antonym, and sometimes complementary to each other. Nonetheless, they create significant part of American culture and identity. Both of them have had many agreements and critiques in American history. Many scholar emphases to individualism and equality, these are important constructive elements of culture, society, and government in the United States of America.

Alexis de Tocqueville believes that individualism is avoidable result of equality and democracy. Because, every person in equal circumstances follows their ideas, in this situation, all of their sentiments concentrate only on their interests. Individualism differs from the selfishness. 
Individualism is visible in many layers of American society and history. American society and land mixed with individualism. Individualism was the pattern of rural settlement, that in which one house located among miles of lands and separated from others houses and villages. Individualism has effected in shaping of American cities. Also, individualism is observed in American high education system and religious patterns.

These were positive aspects of American individualism. But without doubt, it has negative aspects; inattention to keeping the structure and form of city, leaving the farm lands and old buildings without attention to environment problems and immigration to original lands, inattention to poor peoples. According to these issues, uncivilized individualism was being popular. 
Before Discovering American Continent by European Adventures, there were several ethnics, but after that some ethnics added them, and after two centuries American became a multi- ethnic continent. Then United States declared independency, and frequently expended to his original territory by war, purchase, annexation. But principle source of variety had been immigration from any where, especially Europe. Potential of this people to acceptance other culture created one of significant constructive of American culture and identity. America is a territory that its history derivates its people from having a common forbears.

Hector St. John de Crevecouer in his book, "letters from an American Farmer" (1782), mentioned that "I can indicate a family that their grand father is from England with Poland's woman, his son got married with a French girl, and their four sons got married with four diverse nations. He is an American, who left his traditional behaviors and prejudices, and choused new behaviors and ideas. These treatments, ideas originate from new way of life, government, and social positions. Here, individuals from any nations melting within a new race that in future their attempts will bring important changes in globe".

Revolutionary war led to American independency. It was first successful anti-colonial attempt in contemporary history. Winners built a nation that had not the common, conventional pre- conditions of nation-building. United States had not natural territory, history with unique religion versus European countries. There weren't Narrative, ancient poem, folklores, and forefathers of one race.

Since the begging of immigration to United States, English's were major group and cant ignore significant of English language, English law, religious ideas, thinking, theoretical and thinking ideals and principles of English in construction of America and American culture. In spite of these issues, English race don't account native race of American people. English were half people that lived in America in 1790 and African were second category with 20 percent. Answer of constructors of this new country was ideological. They introduced American as new human beings who created based on new ideas, new principles, and new thinking methods. However it was an only way to state about this young country in world.

Traditional pattern for allocating the American-African history is a route from bandage to freedom. Some historians like Nathan heukinze believe that pattern of continued campaign for representing the historic experience of American blacks. History and race relationship of American-African investigate not only considering political, economical, and social situation, but through expand cultural perspective. Establishing modern and global slavery system differed by place, time, race background and European or African formation. In eighteenth century, North American colonies had more population of slavery. Main question is that how the very variety of African people with different believes, behaviors, and language could create the society and culture of modern black world.

First slavery group including twenty Africans entered to James town port with a Poland's ship in 1619. Frequently blacks added to other immigrations in North America, especially Virginia, South coralline and Georgia that had very emergence need to labors.

My name is Javad Alipoor, I'm from Tabrize, I'm 25 years old. I have empirical science diploma. I finished high school in 1998. My A.M degree is Islamic studies and political science, Imam Sadiq university of Tehran, Iran. I finished it in 2003. I passed 190 credits in undergraduate. I'm studying 2 disciplines in M.A degree. I'm studying political science and International relations in Imam Sadiq university of Tehran, that I almost finished it. Also, I 'm studying North American studies in institute for North American and European studies, university of Tehran. I translated political articles and essays from English to Persian, and published in Persian publications and magazines. Qualifications: language; Persian, English, Azeri (Turkish), Arabic (familiar). Computer skills; Win 98 & XP, Internet Explorer, Word, and Search Engines.

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